PSY in March 2012, during a press conference for the television show Superstar K4
|Birth name||Park Jae-sang (박재상, 朴載相)|
|Born||December 31, 1977 (age 34)
Gangnam District, Seoul, South Korea
|Genres||K-pop, hip hop, dance, hip house|
|Occupations||Singer–songwriter, rapper, dancer, record producer, actor|
|Instruments||Vocals, With SKK Team|
|Labels||Bidman, LNLT Entertainment, YG Entertainment, YGEX, Avex Trax, Republic, Schoolboy|
|Associated acts||YG Family, Scooter Braun|
|Revised Romanization||Bak Jae-Sang|
Park Jae-sang (born December 31, 1977), better known by his stage name PSY (Korean: 싸이, IPA: [s͈ai]; English: /ˈsaɪ/ SY), is a South Korean singer, songwriter, rapper, dancer, and record producer. PSY is best known for his humorous videos and stage performances, and for his international hit single “Gangnam Style“, whose refrain “Oppan Gangnam Style” was entered into The Yale Book of Quotations as one of the most famous quotes of 2012.
On October 23, 2012, PSY met UN Secretary General Ban Ki-moon at the United Nations Headquarters where Ban expressed his desire to work with the singer because of his “unlimited global reach”. A few weeks later, Gangnam Style became the most accessed YouTube video of all time having generated one billion views, and PSY was subsequently recognized by the media as the “King of YouTube”. In December 2012, MTV noted how PSY had risen from little-known to “global superstar”, and hailed the singer as the Viral Star of 2012 for being first in the YouTube-era to secure a place in pop-culture history. On December 21, 2012, his music video for Gangnam Style exceeded 1 billion views on YouTube, becoming the first user to ever do so in YouTube’s history.
1977–95: Early life
Park Jae-sang, better known by his stage name PSY, was born on December 31, 1977 to an affluent family in the Gangnam District of Seoul, South Korea. His father, Park Won-Ho, is the executive chairman of DI Corporation, a manufacturer of semiconductors listed on the Korea Exchange.
PSY attended Banpo (반포) Elementary School, Banpo Middle School, and Sehwa (세화) High School. He disliked going to school and annoyed some of his classmates, although sometimes he also made his classmates laugh. During an interview with South Korea’s Seoul Broadcasting System, a former teacher of PSY remarked “I remember PSY making a lot of sexual jokes during class. He had such a big influence that he would drive the entire class to his jokes. I disliked him at the time, but looking back, he added a great energy to the class.”
Later on in his life, PSY told CNN‘s Alina Cho that when he was 15 years old, he had watched a Korean TV programme which introduced pop music from foreign countries. In one particular episode, he witnessed a concert held by the British rock band Queen while they were performing their 1975 hit single “Bohemian Rhapsody” at Wembley Stadium. PSY revealed that the footage of this concert had sparked off his love for music.
1996–2000: Arrival in the United States and career beginnings
As part of preparations to take over DI Corporation from his father, PSY had originally planned to study business administration at Boston University in 1996. However, upon his arrival in the United States, he lost interest in his studies and spent his leftover tuition money on musical instruments and entertainment equipment, including a computer, an electric keyboard, and a MIDI interface. After attending an English language summer course and briefly studying for one semester, PSY dropped out and applied to study at Berklee College of Music instead. During his time at Berklee, PSY took core curriculum lessons in ear training, contemporary writing and music synthesis, but he soon dropped out and returned to South Korea to pursue his career as a singer, without attaining a degree from either Boston University or Berklee.
After returning to South Korea, PSY made his first appearance on Korean national television in 2000 after his dancing caught the eye of a TV producer.
2001–02: PSY from the PSYcho World!, controversy, and domestic success
In January 2001, PSY debuted with his full-length album PSY from the PSYcho World!, for which he was fined by South Korean government authorities due to his album’s “inappropriate content”. PSY was a rookie hip-hop singer that stirred up the Korean pop music scene with very blunt lyrics, peculiar dance moves and an unconventional appearance that earned him the nickname “The Bizarre Singer”.
He released another controversial second album Sa 2 in 2002, which sparked complaints from concerned civil groups due to the potentially negative influence his album would have on children and teenagers. Since then, Psy has been thought of as a controversial artist, and Sa 2 was banned in 2002 from being sold to those under the age of 19. Later in September the same year, Psy released his third album 3 PSY. The album’s title song, “Champion”, saw great success partly due to the hype from the World Cup games held in Seoul. Despite the significant amount of controversy surrounding his music, PSY was awarded with songwriting accolades at the annually held Seoul Music Awards, which marked his breakthrough in the music industry of South Korea.
2003–09: Military service, Sa Jib, and re-enlistment
In 2003, PSY was enlisted in the South Korean military as part of mandatory military service imposed by the South Korean government on all males aged 18 to 35. As the government grants those with technical expertise to work in companies that serve national interests, PSY had evaded compulsory military duty by working at a software developing company, and was expected to be released from duties in 2005. In 2006, PSY released his 4th album Sa Jib, which won honors at the 2006 SBS Music Awards and the Mnet Asian Music Awards.
In 2007, state prosecutors accused PSY of “neglecting” his work, choosing instead to hold concerts and appear on local television networks during his previous employment period. On October 12, 2007, the Seoul Administrative Court decided that PSY must be redrafted, and rejected a lawsuit filed by PSY against the Military Manpower Administration (MMA) earlier in August. PSY was re-drafted into the military 2 months later. During his time in the military, PSY held the rank of Private First Class and served as a signalman in South Korea’s 52nd Army Infantry Division, before being released from duties in July 2009.
2010–12: 5th studio album and debut performance in Japan
Owing to financial difficulties, PSY could no longer release his own songs. This prompted his wife to encourage him to join the South Korean music label YG Entertainment, whose founder and chief executive officer Yang Hyun-suk is an old friend of PSY. In 2010, Psy agreed to switch to YG Entertainment, despite objections from the K-Pop singer Kim Heechul from the boyband Super Junior, who voiced out that PSY should have joined SM Entertainment instead. PSY released his 5th album PSY Five in 2010, but its lead single “Right Now” was banned by South Korea’s Ministry of Gender Equality and Family for its “obscene” lyrics. Despite his lead single being banned, PSY received awards during the 2011 Melon Music Awards and Mnet Asian Music Awards. Prior to the release of “Gangnam Style”, PSY had topped domestic music charts half a dozen times throughout his 12-year career, according to Billboard.
On January 7, 2012, PSY performed alongside K-Pop bands BIGBANG and 2NE1 in front of 80,000 Japanese fans during the YG Family Concert in Osaka. His performance was broadcast by Mezamashi TV, a Japanese news magazine show produced by Fuji Television. This marks his first appearance in a foreign broadcasting network. During the concert, PSY introduced himself to his Japanese fans with a sign that read “I’m a famous singer well-known for driving the audience wild in Korea, but here, today, I’m just a little chubby newcomer”.
2012–present: “Gangnam Style” and unexpected international breakthrough
In July 2012, PSY released his sixth album PSY 6 (Six Rules), Part 1 and the song “Gangnam Style” appeared in broadcasting networks and newspapers outside Asia. On August 14, “Gangnam Style” ranked first on YouTube‘s ‘Most Viewed Videos’ monthly chart; On August 21, 2012, “Gangnam Style” officially charted No. 1 on the iTunes Music Video Charts, overtaking Justin Bieber‘s “As Long as You Love Me” and Katy Perry‘s “Wide Awake“; this feat is the first for any South Korean artist. After the video went viral, celebrities quickly jumped on board with Katy Perry, Britney Spears, and Tom Cruise taking to Twitter to share their delight. The Gangnam Style phenomenon has also popularized his older music videos, such as “Right Now.” On September 14, 2012, he appeared on The Today Show on NBC in New York City, performing the song live and teaching dance moves to the anchors. The following day, he also made a cameo appearance on Saturday Night Live during a skit featuring “Gangnam Style.”
|“||“When I realized that some top stars like have imagined or tweeted about me, I thought, ‘That’s joking. That’s not gonna happen…’ I never expect things like this, not because they are top stars, but because this is the biggest market in the universe for pop music, right, so everybody’s dreaming about having appearance in the U.S. so I’m still saying, ‘What going on here? This is beautiful.'”||”|
Riding high on the success of Gangnam Style, PSY was signed by Scooter Braun to Braun’s Schoolboy Records, a label distributed by Republic Records. In early September, the Gangnam district awarded Psy with a plaque and named him an honorary ambassador. On October 24, 2012, PSY was recognized by the United Nations as an “International sensation.” According to Reuters, U.N. Secretary General Ban Ki-moon scheduled a meeting with PSY in the belief that music has great power to overcome intolerance. On October 23, 2012, they met at the United Nations Headquarters where Ban expressed his desire to work with PSY. He remarked that PSY has an “unlimited global reach” and said, “I hope that we can work together using your global reach.”
On November 7, PSY held a speech in England at the Oxford Union to discuss the inspiration behind Gangnam Style and his next album. He told the audience that due to the success of Gangnam Style he is now living in both a dream and a nightmare, as it will be difficult for his next song to equal Gangnam Style’s success. He also talked about his early life and the moment he realized Gangnam Style became famous. According to The Independent, tickets for his speech were “in such demand they had to be assigned by ballot – a method not required when former presidential candidate John McCain spoke earlier that year, nor when Mother Teresa, the Dalai Lama nor Michael Jackson spoke.”
But if you think about one billion views,
that means people watched it many, many
times. I can’t believe they didn’t get sick of it!
On November 12, PSY became the second South Korean music artist to appear at the MTV Europe Music Awards where he performed Gangnam Style and held off competition from Rihanna, Katy Perry and Lady Gaga to win the “Best Video” award. The event was broadcast worldwide and hosted by the German model and actress Heidi Klum, who introduced PSY to the audience as the “undisputed King of Pop”. A few days later, American singer-songwriter Madonna performed a mashup of “Gangnam Style” and “Give It 2 Me” alongside PSY and her backup dancers during a concert in New York City at Madison Square Garden during her MDNA Tour. PSY later told reporters that his gig with Madonna had “topped his list of accomplishments.”
On November 24, “Gangnam Style” became the most viewed video in YouTube history, surpassing the previous most watched video, Justin Bieber‘s “Baby“. The number of views were achieved about eleven times faster than Bieber’s.
On November 30, PSY won four awards at the 2012 Mnet Asian Music Awards in Hong Kong. He met actor and stunt performer Jackie Chan, who called him a role model that proved that “dreams do come true”.
On December 21, “Gangnam Style” reached 1 billion views on YouTube, becoming the first video to do so.
According to TIME, PSY stated that Freddie Mercury of the British rock band Queen had inspired him to start his music career. PSY also revealed that the one celebrity he wants to meet most is the American actor Tom Cruise, who recently asked on Twitter if PSY would “make a good future co-star Gangnam Style?”
PSY is known for his sense of humor in his concerts, where he imitates female singers such as Park Ji-yoon, Lee Hyori, Lady Gaga and Beyonce. Although his music is part of the K-pop (Korean popular music) genre, Beth Hong from The Vancouver Observer noted that PSY “doesn’t fit the standard K-pop idol image of being incredibly young, good-looking, and able to carry a melodramatic note.”
Lucy Williamson from the BBC recognized PSY as South Korea’s “newest and biggest music star”, but also described him as “unpolished, unpredictable and he doesn’t look like your typical Korean idol“. Sarah Charlton from Reuters called him a “chubby South Korean pop singer” that has found fame and popularity in a “sea of pretty K-pop stars”. In South Korea, some have called him the “Bizarre Singer” while others consider him to be “the antithesis of what is popular in Korean pop music”. Chelsea Handler from Chelsea Lately described Psy as “Korea’s Ricky Martin, as well as a sex symbol” during his introduction on the show while Gil Kaufman from MTV described the singer as one of the “biggest pop sensations in the world”.
According to Hugo Swire, the British Minister of State for the Foreign Office, PSY’s music has given the world a glimpse of the dynamism and vibrancy of modern Korea. The United Nations‘ news division wrote that PSY has become an “international sensation” through his song “Gangnam Style”, a sentiment also shared by the American space agency NASA which called him an “international pop sensation”, adding that PSY’s “Gangnam Style” has forever entered the hearts and minds of millions of people. The Slovenian philosopher and cultural critic Slavoj Žižek remarked about how thousands of people have been copying PSY’s dance moves and calling him “Messiah”. As a result of his worldwide popularity, South Korea’s Ministry of Culture, Sports and Tourism recognized PSY’s cultural achievements by bestowing upon him the Okgwan Order, a 4th grade Order of Cultural Merit.
In 2001, PSY was arrested for the possession of marijuana and as a result, was unable to attend his grandfather’s funeral. During an interview, PSY remarked “I was very close to him. I was not there at the funeral. I will regret this [being arrested] for the rest of my life, because my grandpa loved me so much and I couldn’t be there for him when he was on his deathbed.”
On October 14, 2006, PSY married Yoo Hye-yeon, his girlfriend for three and a half years and a cello major at Yonsei University. According to the Korean Broadcasting System, the couple were introduced by a mutual acquaintance and have been “in love ever since”. They have twin daughters.
PSY considers “Gangnam Style” to be the greatest achievement of his life.
The American news agency Associated Press reported that PSY is set to “become a millionaire” from YouTube advertisements and iTunes downloads, which underlines a shift in how money is being made in the music business. As the cost of music downloads in South Korea amounted to less than US$0.0002 per song in 2012 and PSY received 7.5 percent of every purchase, or US$0.00015 per song, he earned a total of US$61,000 from downloads and streams of “Gangnam Style” in his home country. The bulk of PSY’s earnings, however, originate from other sources such as TV commercials and YouTube revenue, the latter generating almost US$1 million for 33,000 parodies and related videos identified in September 2012 by YouTube’s identification system for using “Gangnam Style” in its content. In total, the Associated Press estimated that PSY will rake in at least US$8.1 million for 2012.
Anti-American performances and subsequent apology
In 2002, PSY participated in an anti-American concert after a U.S. military convoy struck and killed two 14-year-old South Korean schoolgirls during the Yangju highway incident. The soldiers involved in the incident were acquitted by U.S. military courts, which fueled a significant amount of anti-American sentiment in South Korea. During his performance, PSY lifted up a model of an M2 Bradley IFV and smashed it against the stage.
In 2004, the South Korean translator and Christian missionary Kim Sun-il was kidnapped and beheaded in Iraq after the South Korean government refused to reconsider sending its armed forces to support the Iraq War. Although initial protests were only directed towards the South Korean government and towards extremists in Iraq, anti-U.S. military protesters decided to seize the moment to trigger a much larger wave of anti-Americanism. During a concert, PSY admonished the Iraqi kidnappers, condemned South Korea’s former president Roh Mu-hyun, and also sang along to lyrics of the song “Dear American” by South Korean rock band N.EX.T, who composed it to condemn the United States and its military for its role in the Iraq war. Some of these lyrics have been translated as follows: “Kill those fucking Yankees who have been torturing Iraqi captives and those who ordered them to torture,” and “Kill [the Yankees’] daughters, mothers, daughters-in-law and fathers / Kill them all slowly and painfully.” Although PSY’s actions did not receive any significant international media coverage at that time, this changed after the media reported about it in early December 2012. On December 7, 2012, PSY issued an apology directed towards members of the U.S. military and to the American people for his “inflammatory and inappropriate” language, and expressed hope that the American public will accept his apology.
Despite initial public outrage, White House spokesman Josh Earnest told the media that U.S. President Barack Obama and First Lady Michelle Obama will attend PSY’s performance at the Christmas in Washington charity concert as planned. As a result of PSY’s controversial lyrics, a petition circulated on the website of the White House demanding that he be dropped from the concert, although the petition was deleted later in the day because the White House website claimed that the petition violated the website’s terms of participation. Time magazine’s Nick Carbone asserted that it is “unlikely that these newly dug-up anecdotes will depose PSY from his king-like level of stardom” although Carbone did go on to write that the atmosphere at the White House concert would be “somewhat subdued.”
A few days later questions were raised about the accuracy of the translation of the lyrics into English, which originated from CNN‘s citizen journalism initiative iReport. Max Fisher of the Washington post foreign staff reported that it was unclear whether the lyrics specified killing family members of American servicemen who participated in torture or if the song accuses American servicemen of killing Iraqi civilians. Fisher also states that the word translated ‘Yankee’ in the CNN iReport was underplayed, being a “harsh” racial slur literally translated as ‘big nose’.
- PSY from the PSYcho World! (2001)
- Sa 2/Adult only (2002)
- 3 PSY (2002)
- Ssa Jib (2006)
- PSY Five (2010)
- PSY’s Best 6th Part 1 (2012)
- PSY’s Best 6th Part 2 (2013)
Awards and nominations
|2012||Dream High 2||trainer coach (episode 5)|
|Superstar K4 (슈퍼스타 K4)||Himself – Judge|
|Saturday Night Live||Himself, 1 sketch|
|2005||Wet Dreams 2|
Music video appearances
A list of music videos that feature PSY in a guest or cameo role.
|2003||“애송이 (“Aesongi”, “Novice Baby Boy”)”||Lexy|
- ^ “2012 Top Quotes: From ‘Binders Full of Women’ to ‘Gangnam Style'”. NBC Miami (Associated Press). Retrieved December 9, 2012.
- ^ a b Davies, Lizzy. “Rapper Psy brings Gangnam Style horseplay to United Nations”. The Guardian. Retrieved October 24, 2012.
- ^ “Psy now king of YouTube”. News.com.au. Retrieved December 2, 2012.
- ^ Ariosto, David. “Move over Bieber – Gangnam is new YouTube king”. CNN. Retrieved December 2, 2012.
- ^ “Move over Bieber, PSY’s the new king of YouTube”. CTV Television Network. Retrieved December 2, 2012.
- ^ Kaufman, Gil. “Psy’s ‘Gangnam Style’ Is Our Viral Sensation Of The Year”. MTV. Retrieved 18 December 2012.
- ^ “‘PSY Gangnam Style Billion Views Youtube'”. Entertainment Weekly. December 21, 2012.
- ^ “Gangnam Style’ becomes first video to hit 1 billion'”. CNET. December 21, 2012.
- ^ “PSY goes home, gets ‘Gangnam-Style’ welcom”. MSNBC. September 27, 2012. Retrieved September 29, 2012.
- ^ “”Gangnam Style” hit doubles value of Psy’s father’s stock”. Reuters. Retrieved October 26, 2012.
- ^ “PSY’s Yearbook Photo and Mischievous Childhood Revealed!”. Soompi. Retrieved October 26, 2012.
- ^ “Psy: Growing up ‘Gangnam Style'”. CNN. Retrieved November 23, 2012.
- ^ “Psy vows topless show if ‘Gangnam Style’ hits No. 1”. Daily News. New York. Retrieved October 28, 2012.
- ^ Tack-Whan, Wi. “PSY, the man behind the name”. Korea.net. Retrieved October 26, 2012.
- ^ Stern, Marlow. “Psy Talks Gangnam Style, Growing Up, and His Next Single”. Daily Beast. Retrieved October 29, 2012.
- ^ “Did You Know This About Psy?”. Ellen TV. Retrieved October 28, 2012.
- ^ Rocheleau, Matt. “BU hopes to get donation from former student Psy, the South Korean rapper known for ‘Gangnam Style’ hit”. Boston Globe. Retrieved October 26, 2012.
- ^ Brighton, Allston. “BU hopes to get donation from former student Psy, the South Korean rapper known for ‘Gangnam Style’ hit”. Boston Globe. Retrieved October 28, 2012.
- ^ Harrison, Emma. “Gangnam Style a hit with Oxford students”. The Oxford Times. Retrieved November 8, 2012.
- ^ Carbone, Nick. “Gangnam Rile: Psy’s Past Anti-American Performances Stir Controversy”. Time. Retrieved 19 December 2012.
- ^ Garibaldi, Christina. “Britney Spears Learns Psy’s ‘Gangnam Style’ On Ellen Britney’s wish is Ellen DeGeneres’ command, as ‘X Factor’ judge meets Psy after tweeting about his dance.”. MTV. Retrieved October 28, 2012.
- ^ Coughlan, Maggie. “PSY: 5 Things to Know About the ‘Gangnam Style’ Rapper”. People (magazine). Retrieved October 28, 2012.
- ^ a b c “About Psy”. MTV. Retrieved October 28, 2012.
- ^ Hewitt, Giles. “Psy brings ‘Gangnam Style’ home with free show”. Yahoo!. Retrieved October 26, 2012.
- ^ “Artist search: Psy”. KBS. Retrieved October 26, 2012.
- ^ “`Psy May Be Enlisted for Military Service Again”. Korea Times. Retrieved October 27, 2012.
- ^ “Psy Called Up for Military Again”. Korea Times. Retrieved October 27, 2012.
- ^ Park, Si-soo. “Singer Psy to Be Redrafted”. Korea Times. Retrieved October 27, 2012.
- ^ AFP. “Singer Psy during his 2008 stint in the military”. YouTube (AFP). Retrieved December 1, 2012.
- ^ “YG Entertainment, “It’s all Thanks to the Wives of Psy and Tablo”. allkpop. August 9, 2012. Retrieved September 4, 2012.
- ^ “Psy reveals the reason why he joined YG Entertainment”. dkpopnews.net. Retrieved October 26, 2012.
- ^ “Kim Heechul regrets Psy joining YG Entertainment”. Allkpop. Retrieved October 26, 2012.
- ^ “Psy’s “Right Now” gets banned by the Ministry of Gender Equality and Family”. Allkpop. Retrieved October 26, 2012.
- ^ Kwak, Donnie. “PSY’s ‘Gangnam Style’: The Billboard Cover Story”. Billboard. Retrieved October 26, 2012.
- ^ “PSY Catches the Attention of Japanese Media”. Soompi. Retrieved October 26, 2012.
- ^ Ji Yeon, Kim. “Psy Wows Japanese Music Fans”. Mnet Media. Retrieved October 28, 2012.
- ^ a b “U.N. chief to meet South Korean pop star, Austrian skydiver”. Reuters. Retrieved October 23, 2012.
- ^ Fekadu, Mesfin (August 27, 2012). “Wild, Crazy Style”. Daily Express. Associated Press.
- ^ (Finnish) “Unohtakaa Macarena, tässä tulee hevostanssi!”. Ilta-Sanomat. July 28, 2012.
- ^ “Gangnam Style goes viral in rap video”. CNN. August 2, 2012.
- ^ “Psy’s “Gangnam Style” ranks No. 1 on YouTube’s monthly chart”. allkpop. August 13, 2012. Retrieved September 4, 2012.
- ^ “The world’s first global Korean pop star”. 4Music.com. Retrieved November 8, 2012.
- ^ Jaeyeon Woo (August 21, 2012). “Baseball Goes Gangnam Style”. Wall Street Journal – Korea Real Time. Retrieved August 21, 2012.
- ^ “TODAY goes Gangnam style with PSY! – Toyota Concert Series”. Toyotaconcertseries.today.com. Retrieved October 6, 2012.
- ^ Fekadu, Mesfin (August 25, 2012). “Korean rapper PSY goes viral with music video”. Chronicle Herald. Retrieved September 1, 2012.
- ^ “Psy Signs to Scooter Braun’s Label, Will Appear at MTV VMAs”. Billboard. Retrieved October 6, 2012.
- ^ “Getty Images: Inside Seoul’s Gangnam District”. Google. Retrieved September 25, 2012.
- ^ “From Korean pop music to skydiving to Earth – not-your-typical diplomatic meetings for UN Secretary-General”. United Nations. Retrieved October 25, 2012.
- ^ “UN chief gets down `Gangnam Style` with rapper Psy”. The Dong-a Ilbo. Retrieved October 24, 2012.
- ^ Peck, Tom. “Psy has the Oxford Union in raptures, Gangnam style”. The Independent. Retrieved November 7, 2012.
- ^ Montgomery, James. “Exclusive: Psy ‘Can’t Believe’ ‘Gangnam Style’ Broke 1 Billion Views”. MTV. Retrieved 21 December 2012.
- ^ “PSY wins ‘Best Video’ + performs “Gangnam Style” at the 2012 MTV EMA”. koreaboo.com. Retrieved November 11, 2012.
- ^ “2012 MTV EMA Winners”. MTV. Retrieved November 11, 2012.
- ^ “PSY – “Gangnam Style (Live)””. MTV. Retrieved November 12, 2012.
- ^ a b Kaufman, Gil. “Madonna Goes ‘Gangnam Style’ With Psy”. MTV. Retrieved November 14, 2012.
- ^ “Psy lands American Music Award for new media”. 3 News NZ. November 14, 2012.
- ^ “‘Gangnam Style’ Most Watched YouTube Video Ever”. ABC News. November 29, 2012.
- ^ Phua, Lynette (December 1, 2012). “PSY sweeps four awards at Mnet Asian Music Awards”. Channel NewsAsia. Retrieved December 1, 2012.
- ^ “‘PSY Gangnam Style Billion Views Youtube'”. Entertainment Weekly. December 21, 2012.
- ^ Boehler, Patrick. “Psy on Reddit: Inspired by Freddie Mercury, Wants to Meet Tom Cruise”. Time. Retrieved October 26, 2012.
- ^ TomCruise (September 4, 2012). “Twitter / TomCruise: Think @Psy_oppa would make” (Twitter).
- ^ Ho, Stewart. “Tom Cruise Considering Psy as a Future Co-Star?”. Mnet Media. Retrieved October 16, 2012.
- ^ “Psy danced to Gaga, Beyonce before ‘Gangnam Style'”. ABS-CBN News. Retrieved October 26, 2012.
- ^ Hong, Beth. “Bizarre ‘Gangnam Style’ K-pop music video blows up worldwide”. Vancouver Observer. Retrieved October 26, 2012.
- ^ “S Korea’s new cultural exports”. BBC. Retrieved October 26, 2012.
- ^ “The Psy Effect: According to BBC ‘South Korea’s New Economic Force'”. kpopstarz.com. Retrieved October 26, 2012.
- ^ “”Uncool” South Korean pop star Psy goes viral”. Reuters. Retrieved October 26, 2012.
- ^ “Artist of the month – PSY”. Soompi. Retrieved October 26, 2012.
- ^ Teitel, Emma. “Despite the riches seen in the viral video, South Korea has a spending problem”. Maclean’s. Retrieved October 27, 2012.
- ^ “Psy’s ‘Gangnam Style’ Featured on ‘Chealsea Lately'”. Kpopstarz. Retrieved August 25, 2012.
- ^ Swire, Hugo. “Anglo-Korean Society Dinner – Speeches”. http://www.gov.uk. Retrieved 19 December 2012.
- ^ “From Korean pop music to skydiving to Earth – not-your-typical diplomatic meetings for UN Secretary-General”. United Nations. Retrieved 2012-11-07.
- ^ “Johnson Space Center Pathways Interns Create ‘Gangnam Style’ Parody”. NASA. Retrieved 18 December 2012.
- ^ Barry, Robert. “Gangnam Style & How The World Woke Up To The Genius Of K-Pop”. The Quietus. Retrieved 19 December 2012.
- ^ Kim, Rahn. “Psy’s order of merit hits opposition”. Korea Times. Retrieved October 27, 2012.
- ^ Shim, Sun-ah. “Psy’s ‘Gangnam Style’ tears down language barriers”. Yonhap News Agency. Retrieved December 5, 2012.
- ^ Stern, Marlow. “Psy: The Man Behind ‘Gangnam’”. The Daily Beast. Retrieved December 5, 2012.
- ^ “Psy still mourning grandfather’s death 10 years later”. WPTV. Retrieved October 26, 2012.
- ^ “Psy Regrets not Being at his Grandfathers Funeral”. kpopstarz.com. Retrieved October 27, 2012.
- ^ “Psy to tie the knot with girlfriend of 3 years”. KBS. Retrieved October 27, 2012.
- ^ “How Much Do You Really Know About ‘Gangnam Style’ Singer Psy?”. Fox News Channel. Retrieved October 26, 2012.
- ^ “Psy’s twin daughters, “Let’s live together now Daddy””. Allkpop. Retrieved October 26, 2012.
- ^ Woo, Michelle. “Psy Gets ‘Freaked Out’ About His Fame. Here’s Five Other Things We Learned About The ‘Gangnam Style’ Star In His Reddit AMA”. OC Weekly. Retrieved October 26, 2012.
- ^ “Cashing in on Gangnam Style’s YouTube fame”. Associated Press. Retrieved December 5, 2012.
- ^ Kirk, Don. “2d GI acquitted in deaths of 2 South Korean girls”. The New York Times. Retrieved December 7, 2012.
- ^ STANTON, KATE. “Did ‘Gangnam Style’s Psy once rap ‘Kill those f***ing Yankees?”. United Press International. Retrieved December 7, 2012.
- ^ a b Fisher, Max. “Gangnam Nationalism: Why Psy’s anti-American rap shouldn’t surprise you”. The Washington Post. Retrieved December 7, 2012.
- ^ Imam, Jareen. “PSY apologizes for viral anti-American lyrics”. CNN. Retrieved December 8, 2012.
- ^ “Obama to attend PSY performance despite protests”. Associated Press. Retrieved December 8, 2012.
- ^ Montgomery, James. “Psy Apologizes For ‘Inflammatory And Inappropriate’ Anti-American Lyrics”. MTV. Retrieved December 7, 2012.
- ^ Carbone, Nick. “Gangnam Rile: Psy’s Past Anti-American Performances Stir Controversy”. Time. Retrieved December 8, 2012.
- ^ Imam, Jareen. “PSY apologizes for viral anti-American lyrics”. CNN. Retrieved 8 December 2012.
- ^ Carbone, Nick. “Gangnam Rile: Psy’s Past Anti-American Performances Stir Controversy”. Time Magazine. Retrieved 8 December 2012.
- ^ Fisher, Max. “Controversy over Psy’s anti-American lyrics might be based on shoddy translation”. The Washington Post. Retrieved 11 December 2012.